Emergent Abilities of Large Language Models

Chat GPT Conversations

In August of 2022, the paper “Emergent Abilities of Large Language Models” was quietly published in Transactions on Machine Learning Research. In this paper researchers (see footnote) discuss suprising discovery of abilities in NLP models that were not anticipated during the development of these tools.

This paper attempts to identify reasons for these developments and a range of factors that might have caused the emergence of new abilities. While this topic will evolve in coming months the basic test methods will be repeatedly used and expanded upon to help identify new emergent behaviors.

These are exciting times in the world of AI and in turn our world as well. I thought it would be interesting to query Chat GPT as to what testing methods are used currently and the results follow below. I have not modified the output so that you can see the interesting mistake it admitted to during the conversation.

What are BIG-Bench tasks?

Chat GPT Replies BIG-Bench is a benchmark suite for measuring the performance of large language models, such as GPT-3 and its successors. The suite consists of a set of diverse and challenging natural language processing tasks that are intended to evaluate a model’s ability to handle a wide range of language understanding and generation tasks.

The BIG-Bench tasks include a variety of tasks, such as language modeling, question answering, natural language inference, summarization, and more. These tasks are designed to be challenging and to require a high level of language understanding and generation. The tasks are also designed to be diverse, covering a broad range of topics and domains, including science, literature, social media, and more.

By evaluating a model’s performance on the BIG-Bench tasks, researchers can gain insights into the model’s strengths and weaknesses, as well as its ability to generalize to new tasks and domains. The benchmark is intended to be a more comprehensive and challenging evaluation than existing benchmarks, and is expected to drive the development of better and more capable language models.

Please list each big bench task and provide a short explanation for each one

Chat GPT Replies

The BIG-Bench benchmark suite consists of a total of 78 tasks, divided into six categories. Here’s a list of each task along with a brief explanation:

1. Text Generation Tasks

1.1. Autoregressive Language Modeling: Predict the next word in a sequence of text.
1.2. Dialogue Response Generation: Given a prompt, generate a natural-sounding response.
1.3. Summarization: Given a longer piece of text, generate a shorter summary.
1.4. Paraphrasing: Given a sentence, rephrase it in a different way while retaining the same meaning.
1.5. Translation: Translate text from one language to another.

2. Text Understanding Tasks

2.1. Sentiment Analysis: Determine the sentiment (positive/negative) of a given piece of text.
2.2. Natural Language Inference: Given a premise and a hypothesis, determine whether the hypothesis follows logically from the premise.
2.3. Semantic Role Labeling: Identify the roles played by each word in a sentence.
2.4. Named Entity Recognition: Identify named entities (e.g., people, places, organizations) in a piece of text.
2.5. Coreference Resolution: Identify all the expressions in a piece of text that refer to the same entity.

3. Structured Data Tasks

3.1. Table-to-Text Generation: Given a table, generate a natural language description of its contents.
3.2. Text-to-SQL: Given a natural language question about a database, generate the corresponding SQL query.
3.3. Entity Linking: Given a mention of an entity in a piece of text, link it to the corresponding entry in a knowledge base.

4. Computer Vision Tasks

4.1. Object Detection: Identify the objects present in an image and their locations.
4.2. Image Captioning: Given an image, generate a natural language description of its contents.
4.3. Visual Question Answering: Given an image and a question about it, generate the corresponding answer.

5. Audio Tasks

5.1. Speech Recognition: Given an audio clip of speech, transcribe it into text.
5.2. Speaker Diarization: Given an audio clip containing multiple speakers, identify which speaker is speaking at each point in time.
5.3. Voice Conversion: Given an audio clip of one speaker, convert it to sound as if it was spoken by a different speaker.

6. Knowledge and Reasoning Tasks

6.1. Commonsense Reasoning: Given a question about a common-sense scenario, generate the corresponding answer.
6.2. Reading Comprehension: Given a passage of text and a question about it, generate the corresponding answer.
6.3. Open-Domain Question Answering: Given a natural language question, generate the corresponding answer, which may require retrieving information from a large corpus of documents.

This list shows 22 task, please list those that are missing

Chat GPT Replies: I apologize for the mistake in my previous response. The BIG-Bench benchmark suite actually includes a total of 65 tasks, which are divided into six categories. Here is a list of the additional tasks that were not mentioned in my previous response:

1. Text Generation Tasks

1.6. Code Generation: Given a natural language prompt, generate a code snippet that implements the requested functionality.
1.7. Program Synthesis: Given a set of input-output examples, generate a program that produces the desired outputs for the given inputs.
1.8. Question Generation: Given a passage of text, generate a set of questions that can be answered using the information in the passage.
1.9. Sentence Simplification: Given a complex sentence, generate a simpler version of the same sentence that retains the same meaning.

2. Text Understanding Tasks

2.6. Fact Verification: Given a claim and a set of candidate evidence sentences, determine whether each candidate sentence provides evidence that supports, refutes, or is unrelated to the claim.
2.7. Textual Entailment: Given a premise and a hypothesis, determine whether the hypothesis logically follows from the premise.
2.8. Event Extraction: Identify events and their participants in a piece of text.
2.9. Cross-lingual Textual Entailment: Given a premise and a hypothesis in different languages, determine whether the hypothesis logically follows from the premise.

3. Structured Data Tasks

3.4. Tabular Data-to-Tabular Data Translation: Given a table in one format, generate a table in a different format that conveys the same information.
3.5. Program Induction: Given a set of input-output examples, generate a program that produces the desired outputs for the given inputs, with the added constraint that the program must be human-readable and interpretable.

4. Computer Vision Tasks

4.4. Image Retrieval: Given an image, retrieve a set of similar images from a large dataset.
4.5. Visual Reasoning: Given an image and a question that requires reasoning about the visual information in the image, generate the corresponding answer.

5. Audio Tasks

5.4. Sound Classification: Given an audio clip, classify it into one of several predefined categories (e.g., music, speech, noise).
5.5. Sound Localization: Given an audio clip, determine the location of the sound source in a 3D space.

6. Knowledge and Reasoning Tasks

6.4. Dialog State Tracking: Given a conversation history and a current user utterance, track the current state of the dialog and generate an appropriate response.
6.5. Relationship Extraction: Identify relationships between entities in a piece of text.
6.6. Text Completion: Given a partial text, generate the missing part of the text.

Why did you make a mistake?

Chat GPT Replies: As an AI language model, I do not intentionally make mistakes. However, mistakes can occur due to a variety of reasons. It’s possible that I made a mistake in my previous response due to a misinterpretation of the question or an error in my memory. It’s also possible that there was a technical issue or a temporary error that caused me to provide an incomplete or incorrect answer.

Regardless of the reason, I apologize for any confusion or inconvenience that my mistake may have caused, and I’m always striving to improve my accuracy and provide the best answers possible.

No need to apologize i consider you as fallible as myself.

Thank you for understanding! Although I strive to be as accurate as possible, like all machines and humans, I am fallible and can make mistakes from time to time. If you ever have any concerns or questions about my responses, please don’t hesitate to ask, and I’ll do my best to address them.

Are you setup to test yourself automatically and periodically to see if your performance is improving?

Chat GPT Replies: As an AI language model, I do not have the capability to monitor my own performance or initiate testing of my own performance. However, my developers and researchers at OpenAI constantly monitor my performance and conduct regular evaluations and tests to measure my performance and ensure that I am continuing to improve over time.

Additionally, my developers and researchers are constantly working on developing new techniques and methods to improve my performance, such as training me on larger and more diverse datasets, fine-tuning my parameters and architecture, and incorporating new features and capabilities. These improvements are then evaluated and tested on benchmark datasets and tasks to measure their effectiveness and impact on my overall performance.

Overall, my developers and researchers are constantly working to improve my performance and ensure that I am staying at the cutting edge of natural language processing technology.

I love this bot, warts and all…

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